Cytokines, Monoamines and Behavior

Stress, Learned Helplessness, and Brain Interleukin-1

Alexander Kusnecov

Steve & Linda:

It was interesting to hear that the central induction of IL-1 was not achievable using restraint, but was possible with tail shock. Did you confirm whether adrenalectomy would reveal induction of IL-1 after restraint, as you observed for tail shock? Further, does the apparent dependence on a severe physical component suggest a pain mediated mechanism for central IL-1 induction?

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