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McMaster University

Online Biosafety Level 2 Training for Workers

Welcome to Online Biosafety Level 2 Training for Workers

Training consists of content from varied sources, however all questions are multiple choice, which are answered on one sheet. To complete "Biosafety Level 2 Training for Workers", download the Safety Training Bubble Sheet, fill out your personal information on your computer and then print it. Once the sheet is printed, use it to mark your answers as you make your way through the training below. Once you have completed the course content, sign the bottom of the Bubble Sheet and deliver it to the Biosafety Office HSC 1J11A.

The current test subject is: Biosafety Level 2

The current test version is: 2.11

In order to receive credit for "Biosafety Level 2 Training For Workers", 80% of the answers must be correct. You will be contacted via e-mail if this criteria is not met.

The Public Health Agency of Canada provides learning materials via their Biosafety Training Website. Some materials are accessed through this portal and you must create an account for access.

Part 1. Risk Groups, Containment Levels and Risk Assessment

Content: PHAC Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines, Sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3

1. Risk group classification takes into account which of the following:
  a. Whether or not a worker is immunocompromised.
  b. The procedures to be used in conjunction with the pathogen.
  c. Characteristics inherent to the pathogen.
  d. Extreme scenarios.
  e. All of the above.
     
2. Risk group 2 classification is:
  a. Any biological agent that is unlikely to cause disease in healthy workers or animals.
  b. Any pathogen that can cause human disease but, under normal circumstances, is unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock or the environment. Laboratory exposures rarely cause infection leading to serious disease; effective treatment and preventive measures are available, and the risk of spread is limited
  c. Any pathogen that usually causes serious human disease or can result in serious economic consequences but does not ordinarily spread by casual contact from one individual to another, or that causes diseases treatable by antimicrobial or antiparasitic agents.
  d. Any pathogen that usually produces very serious human disease, often untreatable, and may be readily transmitted from one individual to another, or from animal to human or vice-versa, directly or indirectly, or by casual contact.
  e. All of the above.
     
3. Risk group classification is intended to establish the actual handling of biological hazards in a laboratory setting.
  a. True
  b. False
     
4. Containment level descriptions are meant to provide the user with the following requirmements that they must meet in order to handle their pathogen safely:
  a. Engineering requirements.
  b. Operational requirements.
  c. Technical requirements.
  d. Physical requirements.
  e. All of the above.
     
5. Characteristics of Containment Level 2 include
  a. HEPA filtration of exhausted laboratory air.
  b. An isolated unit, functionally and, when necessary, structurally independent of other areas.
  c. Any well-designed space may be used, work is carried out on the open bench, BSCs not required, and containment is achieved through the use of practices normally employed in a basic microbiology laboratory.
  d. Use of the BSC and primary containment device, centrifuges with sealed rotors or sealed cups, appropriate PPE (such as gloves, lab coats and goggles), decontamination of waste materials and frequent use of handwashing sinks.
  e. All of the above.
     
6. Which of the following factors should be considered in a risk assessment?
  a. Risk Group level.
  b. Potential for aerosol generation, quantity and concentration of the pathogen and its stability in the environment.
  c. Type of work proposed.
  d. If applicable, characteristics of manipulated recombinant organisms (e.g., gene coding for virulence factors or toxins; host range alteration; oncogenicity; replication capacity; capability to revert to wild type)
  e. All of the above.

 

Part 2. Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAI)

7. Which of the following are common lab accidents which can lead to an exposure: (LBG Chap 3 Intro)
  a. Spills and splashes.
  b. Needlestick injury.
  c. Cuts from sharps or broken glass.
  d. Animal bites and scratches.
  e. All of the above.
     
8. Which of the following statements are true?
  a. Inhalation exposure results from mouth pipetting, splashes into the mouth, contaminated articles and fingers, eating, drinking.
  b. Ingestion exposure results from spills, splashes, contaminated surfaces or equipment.
  c. Innoculation exposure results from procedures that generate aerosols.
  d. Contamination of the skin and mucous membranes results from needlesticks, cuts from sharp objects, animal bites and scratches.
  e. None of the above.
     
9. Aerosols are small and large droplets of liquid. Which of the following is true? (Belgian Biosafety Server - Bioaerosols - below table 1)
  a. Large droplets evaporate quickly.
  b. Small droplets settle and contaminate surfaces.
  c. Large droplets settle and contaminate surfaces.
  d. Small droplets evaporate quickly.
  e. c and d
     
10. Reporting LAIs helps us:
  a. Identify gaps in training, containment equipment and safety barriers.
  b. Allows for comparative analysis to help determine the cause of LAIs.
  c. Both.
  d. Neither.

 

Part 3. General Operational Practices

Alternate content: Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines - Chapter 4 Operational Practice Requirements

11. How can you reduce your risk of being infected by biohazards that you work with?
  a. Use general biosafety operating practices.
  b. Use good microbiological technique.
  c. Use proper containment devices and facilities.
  d. None of the above.
  e. All of the above.
     
12. General operational practices described in the video, are also depicted in the downloadable poster found on the McMaster Biosafety website called Biosafety In the Laboratory
  a. True, I should download, print and post this in my laboratory!
  b. False
     
13. PPE is only to be worn in the containment laboratory. They are not to be worn in hallways, or other public areas. Lab coats and other PPE are not to be stored with street clothing. (CBSG, section 4.4)
  a. True
  b. False
     
14. Lab techniques should be employed which reduce the creation of droplets and aerosols. There is a downloadable poster found on the McMaster Biosafety website called Procedures to Minimize Aerosol Hazards. Suggestions offered on this poster should be followed.
  a. True, I should download, print and post this in my laboratory!
  b. False
     
15. Good microbiological techniques include: (CBSG, section 12.8)
  a. Do not mix infectious materials with serological pipettes or pipetmen.
  b. Do not forcibly expel liquids.
  c. Work over absorbent material.
  d. Always drain the pipette with the tip against the side of the tube or slowly discharge it close to the surface of the liquid.
  e. All of the above.
     
16. When working with needles and sharps (Lab Manager Magazine)
  a. Dispose of the needle or sharp directly into a sharps container.
  b. Never recap needles.
  c. Always pick up dropped sharps, needles or broken glass with forceps or tongs.
  d. None of the above.
  e. All of the above.
     
17. Leakproof containers must be used to transport infectious samples between facilities, rooms or buildings. (CBSG, page 251)
  a. True
  b. False
     
18. Detailed spill cleanup procedures should be in your laboratory's SOPs and should include which of the following steps: (PHAC Spill Protocol)
  a. PPE should be worn.
  b. Cover the spill with absorbant cloths or paper towels; pour disinfectant over spill area, working from outside to inside; allow time for disinfectant to work.
  c. Disinfect the spill a second time; put contaminated materials into a leakproof, puncture resistent waste disposal container.
  d. Do report any spills, accidents, exposures or losses of containment to the lab supervisor immediately and follow up with an McMaster Injury/Incident Report Form.
  e. All of the above.

 

Content: Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines - Chapter 4 Operational Practice Requirements

19. The general safety practices for containment laboratories only apply to Containment Level 1
  a. True
  b. False, all of these safety practices are either recommended or required for each Containment Level.
     
20. A documented manual of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) must be made available for everyone working in the laboratory. (CBSG, section 4.1.8)
  a. True, training must be documented and signed by the worker and the supervisor.
  b. False
     
21. The general operating procedures which apply to everyone include:
  a. Access control which involves supervision of untrained indiviuals, locked doors and limiting entry for people and vermin such as rodents and insects.
  b. The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as labcoats, gloves, goggles and suitable footwear.
  c. Hygienic practices which not only includes handwashing, but prohibition of eating, drinking, smoking, application of makeup and insertion/removal of contact lenses.
  d. The supervisor is to enforce all of the above in their laboratory.
  e. All of the above.
     
22. Keeping a lab tidy includes:
  a. Routinely removing garbage and solid wastes to their appropriate location.
  b. Storage of papers and office materials away from the wet-lab area.
  c. Maintaining the work area such that it is easy to decontaminate if necessary.
  d. Keeping used gloves and any lab materials away from the computer workstation.
  e. All of the above.
     
23. Aerosols are a concern because:
  a. They are easily detected.
  b. They may travel rapidly throughout the laboratory or building.
  c. They can affect only one person at a time.
  d. They are only produced by accidents.
  e. All of the above.
     
24. Cleanup of a spill of infectious materials includes: (PHAC Spill Protocol)
  a. Containment of the dropped liquids by covering with paper towels.
  b. Application of disinfectant solution, appropriate to the agents manipulated, from the outside to inside of the spill and letting it sit for a minimum contact time of 30 minutes (or according to the manufacturer's directions).
  c. Using tongs or forceps to pick up sharps or broken glass.
  d. a and b.
  e. a, b and c.
     
25. Written emergency procedures must be available in the laboratory for situations such as spills, loss of containment, accidental exposures including near misses, mechanical failure of BSC, animal escape (if applicable) and medical emergencies.
  a. True, all workers should read these SOPs which have been reviewed by the supervisor.
  b. False

 

Content: PHAC Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines, Section 3.1.1

Content: Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines - Chapter 4 Operational Practice Requirements

26. The operational procedures listed in section 3.1.1 apply to all workers in all laboratories handling infectious materials.
  a. True
  b. False
     
27. The Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines will be replaced by the Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines (CBSG) which will be published in draft form this year.
  a. True, we will follow these guidelines until such time as the CBSG takes effect.
  b. False

 

Part 4. Operational Practices for Containment Level 2 Laboratories

Content: Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines - Chapter 4 Operational Practice Requirements

28. The risk assessment to determine risk group, containment level, operational practices, personnel safety and training needs is carried out by the supervisor in conjunction with the Biosafety Officer and McMaster's Presidential Biosafety Advisory Committee.
  a. True
  b. False
     
29. A biosecurity plan is a must for each laboratory, to be designed by many individuals however it is implemented by ______? It is intended to prevent the theft, misuse and intentional release of pathogens or toxins.
  a. the workers
  b. the students
  c. the supervisor
     
30. Inventories are to be kept to track the movement and storage of pathogens or toxins.
  a. True
  b. False
     
31. A medical surveillance program must be in place for workers already working with pathogens or toxins.
  a. True
  b. False
     
32. Everyone working in the laboratory must be trained on the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the facility and for the projects in progress. This means that each laboratory must have SOPs or "protocols" which must be stored in an area accessible by all workers. Evidence of understanding the laboratory's SOPs involves signoff by both the worker and the supervisor on each procedure to be undertaken by that worker. This should be documented in form of a training record: example#1, example#2, example#3 or one customized to your laboratory.
  a. True, everyone must be trained.
  b. False
     
33. Street clothing can be stored with laboratory PPE, such as labcoats. This reduces the risk of cross contamination.
  a. True
  b. False
     
34. Which one of the following statements is false?
  a. The BSL2 lab must be separated from the public by a lockable door, which must remain closed at all times.
  b. Laboratory signange must only show the containment level.
  c. Don labcoat and gloves prior to setup of any work.
  d. PPE must be worn by everyone in the laboratory. Never wear your lab PPE when leaving the laboratory.
  e. Open toe and/or heeled footwear not appropriate for the laboratory.
     
35. A Biological Safety Cabinet must be used only when sterility is important.
  a. True
  b. False
     
36. All BSL2 workers must be trained to use a BSC and understand how it works.
  a. True
  b. False
     
37. Your laboratory's SOPs must include emergency procedures to deal with accidents, spills, BSC failure, fire, exposure to infectious materials and escaped animals.
  a. True
  b. False
     
38. Any disinfectant is suitable for any BSL2 laboratory.
  a. True
  b. False
     
39. Disinfection of your work area must take place only after you have completed your work.
  a. True
  b. False
     
40. All wastes (solid or liquid) must be decontaminated before disposal, re-use or removal from the laboratory. If decontamination is not possible, wastes must be contained and packaged for removal by a specialized company.
  a. True
  b. False
     
41. Sometimes additional operational practices are required as a result of a risk assessment. This work is called "containment level 2 physical, containmental level 3 operational" otherwise known as:
  a. Use of RG3 protocols with selected RG2 agents
  b. BSL2 enhanced
  c. BSL2+
  d. All of the above.
     
42. Which of the following is true regarding the transportation, importation and use of pathogens?
  a. Anyone transporting an infectious substance, whether shipping or receiving it, must be trained in the Transportation of Dangerous Goods as required by Transport Canada.
  b. Before importing a pathogen into a Containment Level 2 Lab, you must ensure that you have a valid importation permit from the Public Health Agency of Canada and/or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Without it, the shipment will not be allowed through customs. It may be destroyed or sent back to the shipper. Importation human pathogens and toxins are regulated currently by the Human Pathogen Importation Regulations.
  c. For some pathogens, approval must be obtained before transfer between labs.
  d. All of the above.
  e. None of the above.

 

Content: Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines - Chapter 4 Operational Practice Requirements

43. The general Operational Practices must also be followed in addition to containment level 2 or BSL2 operational practices.
  a. True
  b. False
     
44. Signage for a BSL2 laboratory must contain:
  a. Biohazard symbol, containment level, PPE requirements and emergency contact information
  b. Above plus an itemized pathogen list
     
45. Emergency protocols, which all BSL2 laboratories are required to have available, include logging all those who enter a BLS2 laboratory in an emergency.
  a. True
  b. False

 

Content: PHAC Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines, Section 3.1.2

46. There are 6 operational practices that are required of a BSL2 laboratory instead of the general operational practices listed in section 3.1.1.
  a. True
  b. False
     
47. Entry is restricted to trained individuals and those on official business in a BSL2 laboratory.
  a. True
  b. False
     
48. Only employees and students are required to be trained. Janitorial stafff and other visitors do not need training.
  a. True
  b. False

 

Part 5. Biological Safety Cabinets

Content: Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity >>> Principles of Laboratory Biosafety >>> Biological Safety Cabinets (start here)

Content: PHAC Safe Use of BSC

49. A Biological Safety Cabinet is a primary containment device. This means:
  a. It is the outermost barrier between you and the pathogen.
  b. It is the innermost barrier between you and the pathogen.
  c. Is is the only barrier between you and the pathogen.
  d. All of the above.
  e. None of the above.
     
50. Why should you not use a fume hood to manipulate biological samples?
  a. The air is 100% exhausted and unfiltered into the environment.
  b. The product is not protected from unfiltered laboratory air.
  c. The person is subject to fumes generated as a result of manipulation of samples inside the fume hood.
  d. a and b.
  e. All of the above.
     
51. Certification of a BSC:
  a. Is carried out according to NSF49 standards (noted by the certification sticker).
  b. Is performed annually.
  c. Is performed after any repairs.
  d. Is performed after any relocations.
  e. All of the above.
     
52. The air curtain is the barrier that protects you from aerosols within the BSC. Maintaining the air curtain is accomplished by the following:
  a. Ensuring high traffic in front of the BSC during use.
  b. Rapidly opening and closing the doors close to the BSC.
  c. Using quick and wide arm movements in and out of the BSC.
  d. All of the above.
  e. None of the above.
     
53. Startup procedures include which of the following:
  a. Ensure the sash is in the proper position, turn on the BSC and light, check for inward airflow.
  b. Ensure grilles are free from obstructions. Disinfect interior surfaces.
  c. Assemble materials inside the BSC, line the work area with absorbent material, segregate "clean" and "dirty" items.
  d. Let the BSC run for 5 minutes to purge airborne contaminants before beginning.
  e. All of the above.
     
54. Which of the following working procedures is false?
  a. Work towards the rear of the BSC.
  b. Work from clean to dirty. Discard all waste inside bags or closeable containers INSIDE the BSC.
  c. Do not use flames or centrifuges inside the BSC.
  d. Hands enter and exit the BSC from an angle. Only two people at a time can work at the BSC.
  e. All of the above.
     
55. Shutdown procedures include which of the following:
  a. Close opened containers. Bag all waste. Let BSC run for 5 minutes.
  b. Surface disinfect items for removal. Remove gloves and discard into bag inside BSC. Disinfect surfaces.
  c. Remove waste. Discard gloves. Wash hands.
  d. All of the above.
  e. None of the above.
     
56. UV Lights are recommended as a reliable method of decontamination.
  a. True
  b. False

 

Content: PHAC Poster - Biosafety Cabinets: Safe Use and Operation(pdf)

57. The poster entitled Biosafety Cabinets: Safe Use and Operation contains valuable information regarding use of Biological Safety Cabinets.
  a. True, I should download, print and post this in my laboratory!
  b. False.
     
58. Excessive movements of arms inside the BSC does not affect airflow.
  a. True
  b. False
     
59. All objects must be disinfected before bringing them out fo the BSC, including sample tubes.
  a. True
  b. False

 

Part 6. Waste Disposal

Content: McMaster Biosafety Website on Waste Disposal

60. The waste generator (biohazard worker) is responsible for effective decontamination and securely packaging of waste materials prior to pickup and disposal by housekeeping or other staff.
  a. True
  b. False
     
61. All BSL2 biohazardous wastes are to be decontaminated and bagged inside the BSC and then sprayed out prior to deposit into the bag-lined cardboard boxes.
  a. True - BAG! BAG! BOX! Also read page 10 and 11 of RMM#502 - Hazardous Waste Management
  b. False
     
62. All decontamination protocols of waste materials should make use of decontamination solutions which are proven effective against the biohazards / pathogens present in the waste.
  a. True
  b. False
     
63. Liquid wastes are:
  a. Poured directly into the sink (sanitary sewer).
  b. Poured directly into the sink followed by decontamination solution.
  c. Decontaminated with a product as per manufacturer's instructions (or recommendation from PSDS) and then poured into the sink followed by running water.
  d. All of the above.
  e. None of the above.
     
64. Solid wastes are:
  a. Emptied of liquids if applicable.
  b. Decontaminated with a product as per manufacturer's instructions (or recommendation from PSDS)
  c. Bagged inside the BSC.
  d. Sprayed out of the BSC and placed into a bag-lined cardboard box (Stericycle/Daniels)
  e. All of the above.
     
65. Sharps waste is to be:
  a. Deposited into a leakproof, closeable, puncture resistent container.
  b. Deposited into regular waste.
  c. Sharps container is discarded into solid biohazard waste container when 3/4 full.
  d. a and c
  e. All of the above.
     
66. Contaminated labcoats or other textiles are to be:
  a. Decontaminated by soaking in appropriate decontamination solution, dried then sent for laundering.
  b. Bagged and autoclaved if permissible by the autoclave operator.
  c. Bagged and discarded as solid biohazardous waste.
  d. Any of the above.
     
67. Sharps include the following
  a. Needles, scalpels and razor blades
  b. Bent or sheared metal, such as the metal band on a stoppered vial
  c. Broken glass
  d. Any broken plasticware that gives a sharp edge
  e. All of the above
     
68. Needles are to never to be recapped and are to be disposed immediately after use into a sharps container. Recapping increases the likelihood that you will experience injury and subsequent exposure to the pathogens you are manipulating.
  a. True
  b. False
     
69. The cardboard box, lined with a plastic bag is for disposal of bagged solid biohazardous wastes. The bag is to be tied and the box is to be taped securely closed when it is:
  a. 1/4 full
  b. 1/2 full
  c. 3/4 full
  d. Full

 

Part 7. Injury / Incident Reporting

Content: Injury/Incident Report Please read through the report form and its explanations on the last page. Answer the following questions:

70. The Injury/Incident report can be used to report both accidents and "near misses" which result in no injury.
  a. True
  b. False
     
71. Who is responsible for completing the injury/incident form?
  a. The person reporting.
  b. The supervisor.
  c. The main witness.
  d. The supervisor and the person reporting.
  e. The supervisor, the person reporting and the main witness.
     
72. Who must sign the completed injury/incident form?
  a. The person reporting.
  b. The supervisor.
  c. The chair or the department head.
  d. a and b
  e. a, b and c
     
73. If the supervisor and / or the department chair or head is not available for signature, the injury/incident form can still be submitted. It must be resubmitted with the remaining signatures when available.
  a. True
  b. False
     
74. Who is responsible for investigating the incident?
  a. The supervisor.
  b. The person reporting.
     
75. Who is responsible for determining the corrective measures to be taken?
  a. The supervisor.
  b. The person reporting.
     
76. Who is responsible for assigning implementation tasks to carry out those corrective measures?
  a. The supervisor.
  b. The person reporting.
     
77. Who is responsible for taking disciplinary action where warranted?
  a. The supervisor.
  b. The person reporting.

Updates on the changing HPTA regulations, the new Canadian Biosafety Standards and Guidelines and more click here